19 Mars 2018
Europeans wanting to belittle the scientific merit of Muslims, including many scientific and medical discoveries; social; and philosophical falsely and racially and Islamophobically accused Arab scholars of plagiarism of Greek scholars. Why the Greeks elsewhere and not the Persians or India or China or the Romans? Greece is only a small part of the world that has not had an empire as vast as that of Rome or Persia or that of India or that of China!
If really the Arab scientists had copied the Greek scientists then why they did not know how to develop a concrete as resistant as that of the Greeks and the Egyptians or that even of the Romans or that of the Hindu palaces? Why the technological skills of the Greeks and Romans and ancient Egyptians seem to be lost forever? This is not logical, the whole world would have been struck with amnesia to forget how it is possible to build bridges that can resist at least 3000 or 10 000 years? So the Arabs would have plagiarized the formulas of trigonometry and the golden number pi but they could not know how to make concrete as solid cement as that of the Greeks Muslims developed the mathematics to be able to calculate the times of prayer and the beginning and end of Ramadan and they invented watches and telescopes and invented the first camera just for that to observe the moon. Without Islam and the Quran why tired to scrutinize the sky? Certainly there is also agriculture and the growth of plants is accelerated by the lunar attraction at least their germination and exit from the earth. Christianity and Judaism and Buddhism are caste religions where lower castes had neither the right to learn to read and write or to learn the sciences. Islam has managed to get rid of superstitions to create a rational science but also a society turned towards the good and the mutual help between all a fraternity so a true democracy or all believers would be all free and equal before God. Sunni Islam has no clergy, therefore, a parasitic mass of religious who produce nothing and live on the hooks of the people. The only teacher is God Islam forbids domination of man by man and therefore the exploitation of man by man.Even the concept of democracy and Republic are plagiarism of Islam but utopias of lures used by some oligarch s to enslave the rest of humanity.
According to the Koran, the pyramids and some towers built in ancient Egypt were built with a kind of cement that was baked in ovens, neither Arab scientists nor modern-day Westerners know how to design this mysterious cement.Even the Arabs before the and Egyptians knew the electricity and the batteries even the light bulbs why the Arab scientists did not resume their work?
Plato never existed and the allegory of the caves is in fact only a tafsir of the quran so an explanation of the surah el Khaf. Finally Homer why not Omar, the Odyssey of Homer would in fact be El Rihla of Ibn Buttuta? And Archimedes, why not Arche Ahmed?
Nasr Eddine Boutammina, Ph.D. in biological and medical sciences, prolific author of numerous books dealing with the falsification of the history of science in general, and the history of the Renaissance in Europe.
He questions the very existence of Greek classical scholars who, according to him, were invented in the Middle Ages and during the Renaissance in order to conceal the Muslim roots of the sciences that the Europeans supposedly initiated. The Greeks had no paper no printing and there is no archaeological record of their books be it Pythagoras Plato or else like Archimedes or Hippocrates or Homer. The Medici conspired with the Vatican to ban science and printing in Muslim countries and organized the plagiarism of Muslim books to be attributed to Greeks or Europeans. Finally, all the Greek mythology was only a big lie because we would know the role of each God and their kinship ties but we would have forgotten how the Greeks built bridges and palaces that could withstand time for thousands of years?
His approach is part of what he calls "Retablism" a notion that wants to question history by the yardstick of scientific arguments.
So the word Bible does not come from the name Biblios a mythical Greek city sheltering a huge library but in Arabic Bible is the door of God like Babylon or the tower of babel formerly called it Allah or el which gave name like Israel or Gabriel or Mikael.
The oath of Hippocrates would be that of Ibn Sina or Avicenne author of the medical canon that served for 500 years to train European doctors.
Wikipedia tells us that the refining of oil was created by Westerners which is completely false. Because oil refining existed well before Islam in Mesopotamia and Egypt and elsewhere. The Egyptians were treated with oil and mummified their deaths with tar or oil. Finally public lighting existed long before Islam in Iraq but the streets of the Andalusian cities of Muslim Spain were illuminated well before those of London. The medical works of Galen and Paul of Aegina, which eventually resonated in Europe, were, for example, only the result of the work of translation and improvement of the Arabs, especially those of Al-Razi (Rhazes), author of 'Al Hawi, a major medical work. Jews who lived in harmony in Muslim Andalusia and then had to flee the repression of the Spanish Reconquista took with them this medical knowledge, which then contributed to the development of studies of medicine in cities such as Montpellier in France, Bologna in Italy and many more across Europe.In addition, plagiarism in vogue today, was already relevant in the era of the Renaissance. René Descartes' 'discourse on the method' is very much like Al-Ghazali's' Error and Deliverance ', whereas the works of Copernicus, which were preceded by those of Al-Batruji, are very similar to those of 'Al-Tusi and Ibn Al Shatir. Nothing also distinguishes the thought of the Italian theologian and philosopher Thomas Aquinas (1224-1274) from those of Al-Ghazali and Ibn Rushd. The word atom itim in Arabic means orphan in Arabic.Finally atomize in Arabic hatam means destroy atomize or disintegrate which proves that the Muslim physicists knew the existence of atoms and the theory of the Big Bang or the non-existence of time because all this is evoked in the Holy Quran.Many Italian atomic physicists are of Sicilian origin a world close to the Arab world.Finally Albert Einstein would have lived in Italy and would have had an Arabic translator to translate him some ancient documents.The Middle Ages wrongly attributed to Jabir, henceforth called Latin Geber or Pseudo-Geber, works of alchemy that are apocryphal. Marcelin Berthelot has shown that the Latin works of Geber could only come from Jabir ibn Hayyan but dated back to the end of the thirteenth century, for they describe chemical substances, especially mineral acids, and chemistry processes unknown to the Arabs and which fall under The most famous of these books of alchemy is The sum of perfection (Summa perfectionis) (circa 1260). According to William R. Newman, this treatise may have been written around 1260 by Paul de Tarente, a Franciscan author of other works on alchemy. There is, at least, another hypothesis. Another tradition proposes [ref. desired] al Jābir, al Djāber, even al Jarbi, a Mudejar alchemist from the Iberian Peninsula known as Geber. It is none the less true that it continues from 1310 to 1360 the work of the Arab-Persian masters. His three books, mostly known in Latin and then published in the 17th century in the lingua franca, are: Summa perfectionis magisterii either The testamentoLiber fornacum or The book of furnaces (or laboratory apparatus) Investigatione perfectionis The search for perfectionInventione veritatis The invention of The truthNotons that the mathematician and geometer Abu-Mohammed Djabir ibn Allah, said Geber of Seville, living in the second half of the eleventh century, is the author of a voluminous treatise on astronomy, translated by Gerard Cremona. But he can not be confused with others. Jabir has written more than a hundred treatises on various subjects, of which 22 relate to alchemy. Firmly built on experimental observations, his books give a systematization of fundamental chemical processes used by alchemists, such as crystallization, distillation, calcination, sublimation and evaporation. They are therefore a big step in the transformation of the chemistry of an occult art into a scientific discipline. In particular, Jabir guesses that finite quantities of different substances are used during chemical reactions, thus anticipating by almost a millennium the principles of modern chemistry and in particular the law of definite proportions discovered by Joseph Louis Proust in 1794.
He is also credited with the invention and development of several laboratory equipment still in use today. Heir to the Greco-Egyptian alchemists like Zosime of Panopolis, he used the still, which allowed him to make distillations more safely, easier and more efficiently. By distilling salts in the presence of sulfuric acid, Jabir discovered hydrochloric acid (from sodium chloride) and nitric acid (from saltpeter). By mixing the two, he invented aqua regia, which is one of the only chemical reagents that dissolves gold. Beyond its applications for the extraction and purification of gold, this invention was both happiness and desperation of the alchemists for the next millennium. It is also credited with the discovery of citric acid (the basis of lemon acidity), acetic acid (from vinegar) and tartaric acid (from vinification residues).
Jabir applied his knowledge to the improvement of many manufacturing processes, including the manufacture of steel and various metals, the prevention of rust, gilding, the dyeing of clothes, the tanning of leather, as well as the pigments analysis. He developed the use of manganese dioxide (MnO2) in the manufacture of glass to offset the green tints produced by iron, a process still used today. He noticed that the boiling of the wine produces a flammable vapor, thus opening the way for the discovery of ethanol by Al-Razi.
He also proposed a nomenclature of substances, which can be seen as laying the foundation for modern classification of elements. He proposed to separate the substances into three categories: "spirits", which vaporise under the effect of heat such as camphor, arsenic or ammonium chloride; "metals" such as gold, lead, copper and iron; and "stones" that can be ground into powder form.
During the Middle Ages, his treatises on alchemy were translated into Latin and became the reference texts of the European alchemists. Among these are the Kitab al-Kimya ("Book of the Composition of Alchemy"), translated by Robert of Chester in 1144, and the Kitab al-Sab'een ("The 70 books"), translated by Gerard of Cremona (before 1187). Berthelottraduisit some of his books known as the "Book of the Kingdom", "Book of Balance", "Book of Oriental Mercury". Some technical terms introduced by Jabir passed into European languages and became commonplace words in scientific vocabulary, such as al kali (alkaline).
Jabir became an alchemist at the court of Caliph Haroun al-Rashid. His interest in alchemy was very much inspired by his teacher Ja'far al-Sadiq, who was a highly educated man and one of the highest authorities in the esoteric sciences. Jabir himself was nicknamed "al-Sufa", which indicates that he belonged to a mystical and ascetic branch of Islam. He wrote the Kitab al-Zuhra ("Book of Venus", the Noble Art of Alchemy) for Haroun al-Rashid. He writes in his "Book of Stones" that "the purpose is to unmask and mislead all but those loved by God and destined to knowledge. His works were deliberately written according to an esoteric code, so that only those who had been initiated into his alchemy school could understand them. It is therefore very difficult for the modern reader to discern which aspects of his writings are to be understood as symbols (and to unravel their meaning) and which ones can be understood literally.
The list of Arab-Muslim scholars is by no means exhaustive and could include men such as the great traveler Ibn Batuta, Ibn Sina (Avicenna), Hayy Ibn Yazan or Ibn Tufayl who all influenced in one way or another Voltaire, John Locke, Kant, Da Vinci, Rousseau and many other European thinkers and scientists.
An approach, validated by many scientists, over the centuries, to integrate into our world view, to get even closer to the "reality" of our history.